Minggu, 11 Juli 2010

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Lambang Kunci Kepausan

Para Uskup Roma telah menjalankan otoritas yang ditetapkan secara ilahi atas seluruh Gereja. Otoritas Kepausan terhadap Gereja Timur telah seringkali ditegaskan terutama pada masa-masa krisis besar. Di sini saya berikan contoh-contoh bagaimana Uskup-uskup Roma menjalankan otoritas ekklesial atas Gereja Universal di mana otoritas ini memiliki asal-usul ilahi dan dengan demikian menaati/tidak menaati pada dekrit-dekrit dogmatis dari otoritas ini sama dengan menaati/tidak menaati Yesus Kristus.

Pope Silvester

The Coptic and Greek Churches celebrate his feast on January 2. The Menaion which contains liturgical prayers says of St. Silvester:

God-bearing Father Silvester, you appeared as a pillar of fire, in sacred fashion leading the sacred college, and as an overshadowing cloud, delivering the faithful from the Egyptian [Arian] error and on every occasion leading them with unerring teachings to divine land... Enriched with the chair of the coryphaeus of the apostles... as a most marvelous minister of God... beautifying, strengthening and magnifying the Church with divine teachings, as a light-bearing star, illumining with the light of virtues... You appeared as the coryphaeus, and hieromystes of the sacred college, and adorned the... throne of the coryphaeus of the disciples... As the divine coryphaeus you established the most holy dogma, destroying the impious dogmas of heretics... [Menaion, Athens 1979, January, 17, 22, 24]

Pope Julius

The Eusebians believed that since Rome reserved the right to depose Novation without the East the East should have the freedom to depose Athanasius without interference from the West. Julius responded to them in a letter which was preserved by Athanasius:

It behooved you, beloved, to come hither [to Rome], and not to refuse, in order that this business may be terminated, for reason requires this... O beloved!...For even if any offenses had been committed by these men, as you say, the judgment ought to have been in accordance with the rule of the church, and not thus...And why were we not written to especially with regard to the church of Alexandria? Or are you ignorant that this has been the custom, first to write to us, and that thus what is just be decreed from here? If therefore any such suspicion fell upon the bishop there [at Alexandria], it was befitting to write to this church. Not thus were the ordinances of Paul, not thus have the Fathers handed it down to us. This is a new decree, and a new institution. Bear with me, I exhort you, for what I write is for the common good. For what we have received from the blessed apostle Peter, the same do I manifest to you. [Apol., 35. PG 25: 305-8]

The historian Sozomen wrote of Pope Julius:

The bishop of Rome, having examined the case of each one, and finding them all of one mind about the dogma of the Council of Nicea, received them into communion as being of the same faith [as himself]. And because he had the care of all, owing to the dignity of his see, he restored each one to his church... [HE III, 8]

Sozomen records that Julius criticized the Eusebians for failing to convoke him to the council at Antioch:

...because it is a law that actions taken without the consent of the bishop of Rome are invalid. [HE III, 10]

The historian Socrates said something along the same line as Sozomen:

Each one explained his case to Julius, bishop of Rome, and he, by virtue of the prerogative of the church of Rome, strengthened them with very firm letters and sent them back into the East, restoring to them their sees and reprimanding those who had temerariously deposed them. [HE II, 15]

Socrates wrote that Julius rebuked the Eusebians on the grounds that:

...it is unlawful to legislate for the churches without the consent of the bishop of Rome. [HE II, 17 ]

Council of Sardica

Canons 3-5 of Sardica deal with appeals made to the Bishop or Rome.

The canons of Sardica were included in collections of the Latin, Syriac, Armenian and Greek churches.

The council wrote to Pope Julius:

... most beloved brother, although you were separated in the body, you were present by a like mind and will...For this will seem best and most exceedingly fitting if the bishops of the Lord, from each of the different provinces, refer to the head [caput], that is, the see of Peter the apostle..[Mansi 3: 40]

Eastern subscriptions to the Council of Sardica include Phrygia, Isauria, Ancyra, Gaza, Thrace, Larissa, Thessalonica, Nicopolis, Dardania, Macedonia, Achaia, Thessalia, Cyprus, Asia, Dacia, Pannonia, Gaul, and Athanasius himself. [Athanasius, Apol. 37-50. PG 25: 311 sq. Cf. Mansi 3: 38-9]

The Byzantine Council of Trullo, in 692, also accepted the canons of Sardica. [Mansi 11: 940]

The Vicariate at Thessalonica

From the late fourth century to the time of Pope Leo the Great the bishop of Thessalonica acted as vicar of the Bishop of Rome.

The Vicariate under Pope Boniface(418-422) was headed up by Rufus. Boniface had written to the bishops of Thessaly:

The institution of the universal Church at its birth took its beginning from the office of Blessed Peter, in whose person its government and summit consists. For from his fountain the stream of ecclesiastical discipline flowed forth into all the Churches, as the culture of religion progressively advanced. The precepts of the Council of Nicea bear witness to nothing else: so that it did not dare to appoint anything over him, seeing that nothing could possibly be conferred above his office: moreover, it knew that everything had been granted to him by the word of the Lord...certain bishops... are striving to separate themselves from the Apostolic See’s communion, or if I may speak more accurately, her authority, asking for help from those to whom ecclesiastical rules have not sanctioned any greater authority... [PL 20: 777-79]

With the Vicariate under Celestine he had written to several bishops of Illyricum over a certain incident involving a bishop and said:

We especially are bound to have care for all, to whom Christ imposed the necessity of dealing with all, in the holy apostle Peter, when He gave him the keys for opening and shutting... [PL 50: 427-8]

The Vicariate under Pope St. Leo saw an incident of the abuse of this authority and in a reprimand to vicar Anastatius Leo wrote:

... I have delegated the place of my authority so that, in imitation of my meekness, you might assist in the care we owe to all the churches principally and by divine institution, and in a sense extend the presence of our visitation to provinces far distant from us... For we have entrusted our place to Your Charity in such a way that you are called to a share in our solicitude, not the fullness of authority. [PL 54: 668-671]

Cyril and Celestine

Celestine instructs St. Cyril that Nestorius has to retract in ten days or face excommunication:

Wherefore, having assumed unto yourself the authority of our See, and using our stead and our place with authority, you shall execute this sentence with the utmost strictness...We have written the same things to our brethren and fellow bishops John, Rufus, Juvenal and Flavian, so that our sentence, or rather the divine sentence of Christ our God concerning him, may be made known. [PL 50: 463]

This same command had been given to John of Antioch, Papal vicar Rufus of Thessalonica, Juvenal of Jerusalem and Flavian of Philippi(metropolitan of Macedonia) all major Eastern Sees.

To the Eastern Bishops Celestine also said:

Sentence has been passed against Nestorius by us, or rather by Christ our God… [PL 50: 467-9]

Council of Ephesus(431)

Pope Celestine was represented by three legates to whom he gave the instructions:

We also order the authority of the Apostolic See to be preserved... Indeed the instructions given to you say that if it comes to disputing [among bishops], you are to judge their teachings, not enter the fray... [Mansi 4: 556]

The Papal legates were late. The acts record that Cyril was:

... holding the place of the most holy and most sacred Celestine, archbishop of the Roman Church.” [Mansi 4: 1123]

With Nestorius condemned the third session reread his sentence. Philip, a Papal legate, responded:

... Peter, prince and head of the apostles, pillar of the faith and foundation of the Catholic Church... to him was given the power of binding and loosing sins, who up to this very age ever lives and judges in his successors. [Mansi 4: 1295-8; ACO I: 1: 3: 60-61]

Papal legate Projectus later added:

Wherefore I, by authority of the delegation of the Apostolic See, as executor of the sentence together with the brethren define that Nestorius... has been removed from the rank of episcopal office and, further, from the communion of all orthodox bishops. [Mansi 4: 1299. ACO I: Vol. 1: Pt. 3: 62]

Arcadius agreed, “in accordance with the acts of this holy synod, we cannot but confirm their doctrine with our subscriptions.” The council itself spoke:

Since the most reverend and most religious bishops and legates Arcadius and Projectus, and Philip, priest and legate of the Apostolic See, have spoken in order, let them consequently fulfill their promise, confirming the acts by their signature. [Mansi 4: 1299. ACO I: 1: 3: 63]

The “Robber Council”

Eutyches wanted an ecumenical council convened on his behalf because of his being condemned by Flavian. After this infamous "Robber Council" persecution was rampant.

Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus was being deposed and had appealed to Rome saying:

To you, indeed, it is fitting that the primacy belong in every respect… Your(See) has received from God an affluence of goods: it is the greatest and most illustrious,it presides over the universe, it is teeming with inhabitants...I have been condemned without having been judged. But I await the sentence of your apostolic see... I beg and urge your holiness, to whose just tribunal I appeal to help me... I implore you to tell me whether or not I must accept this unjust deposition, because I await your sentence. [PG 83: 1313-16]

Theodoret had also contacted the priest Renatus, a legate of Pope Leo saying:

I implore your holiness to convince the most holy archbishop to use his apostolic authority to order me to come to his synod, because this most holy see has authority (hegemonia) over the churches throughout the world for several reasons... [PG 83: 1324]

In his appeal against being deposed, Eusebius of Dorylaeum wrote:

I implore Your Beatitude... restore to me the dignity of my episcopate, and communion with you, by letters from you to my lowliness bestowing on me my rank and communion. [Neues Archiv 11: 364-7]

The “Real” Ecumenical Council, Council of Chalcedon

Pope Leo would not be able to attend the council but would be present in his legates. He wrote:

...in these brethren, that is, Bishops Paschasinus and Lucentius, and the priests Boniface and Basil, let Your Fraternity consider me as presiding at the synod; my presence is not far from you inasmuch as I am present in my vicars. [Ep. 93. PL 54: 937]

Dioscorus (presider over the “Robber Council”) was seated as one of the judges. Papal legate Paschasinus stood and said:

We have in our hands orders from the most blessed and apostolic pope of the city of Rome, which is head of all the churches, by which his apostleship has deigned to command that Dioscorus is not to sit in the council. It is necessary for us to observe this... Either he is to go out, or we leave. [ACO II, Vol. 3, Pt. 1, 40]

The commissioners wanted to know why Dioscorus was singled out for accusation. Papal legate Lucentius replied:

It is necessary that he give an account for his judgment, because, although it was not his place to act as judge, he presumed and dared to make a synod without the authority of the Apostolic See, which was never lawful [and] was never done. [ACO II, Vol. 3, Pt. 1, 40]

The legates pronounced this sentence against Dioscorus in which the bishops agreed:

Therefore... Leo, through us and through the present holy synod... has stripped him(Dioscorus) both of the dignity of the episcopate and of all priestly ministry. Therefore let this great and holy synod, in conformity with the canons, decree with regard to the above-mentioned Dioscorus. [ACO II, Vol. 1: 2: 28-29]

Hormisdas Libellus

The formula of Pope Hormisdas reads in part:

...the teaching of our Lord Jesus Christ cannot be overlooked, which says: "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I shall build my Church," these things which have been said are proven by the events, because in the Apostolic See the Catholic religion has always been preserved immaculate... we anathematize all heresies... we anathematize Eutyches and Dioscorus of Alexandria, who were condemned in the holy council of Chalcedon... Consequently we receive and approve all the letters of the blessed Pope Leo, which he wrote concerning the true faith. Wherefore, as we have already said, following in all things the Apostolic See and preaching whatever has been decreed by it, I hope that I may deserve to be in one communion with you, which the Apostolic See preaches, in which is the complete and true solidity of the Christian religion. [CSEL 35: 520-22]

Persecutions in the East resulted in bloodshed. Hormisdas received one appeal from numerous archimandrites and monks of Second Syria having almost 200 hundred signatures:

Taught by the grace of our Savior to have recourse to Your Beatitude as to a tranquil harbor in a storm, we believe that we have already been delivered from the evils weighing upon us... As Christ our God has constituted you the prince of pastors… We beg you, we urge you, O blessed Father, rise up full of zeal and ardor, have compassion on the body torn to pieces, since you are the head of all; avenge the faith which has been despised, the canons trampled underfoot, the fathers blasphemed, the holy council struck with anathema. God has given you the power and authority of binding and loosing. [CSEL 35: 565 sq.]

The Armenians were loosing Monophysite faithful. John, Patriarch of Jerusalem, wrote to the Catholicos of Caucasian Albania:

As for us, that is the holy Church, we have the following dominical pronouncement, which he spoke to Peter, head of the apostles, giving him the superintendence of the immovable faith of the churches, [saying:] “You are rock and on that rock I shall build my Church, and the gates [of hell] shall not prevail against it.” He also gave to Peter the keys of heaven and earth, so that until this day his disciples and the doctors of the catholic church follow his faith... especially the heirs of his holy and venerable See [who do this] with sound faith, unerringly [anskhal] in accordance with the dominical pronouncement… [Ararat, 9 (1896), 253]

The Byzantines were pressed to sign the libellus. Unity and peace appeared on the horizon and came rather quickly with the new emperor Justin II. It was solidified with the signing of Patriarch John of Constantinople. The Roman deacon Rusticus [c. 550] speaks of the libelli, or professions of faith:

... of perhaps twenty-five hundred priests, under Emperor Justin, after the schism of Peter [Mongus] of Alexandria, and Acacius of Constantinople. [PL 67, 1251-2]

Pope Agapetus(535-536) deposed (wew, Paus ternyata bisa memecat Patriark lain) Monophysite Patriarch of Constantinople Anthimus. The new patriarch Menas and the Emperor Justinian signed a formula similar to that of Hormisdas.[A.S. 45: 179]

Lateran Council of 649

Called by Pope Martin the opening of the acts call it:

... the holy and apostolic synod, which occurred in the most celebrated Old Rome, according to the sacred command and canonical procurement of the most holy and thrice blessed Pope Martin, who presided over the entire divine hierarchy under the sun, for the establishment and defense of the dogmas of the fathers and synods of the Catholic and apostolic church according to the gospel. [Mansi X, 863-64]

Stephon of Dora, bishop under St. Sophronius of Jerusalem, addresses the council:

And for this cause, we sometimes asked for... the wings of a dove... that we might fly away and announce these things to that Chair which rules and presides over all, that is to yours, the head and highest... For this it has been accustomed to do from of old and from the beginning with power by its canonical or spiritual authority, because the truly great Peter, leader of the apostles, clearly was deemed worthy not only to be entrusted with the keys of heaven, alone [and] apart from the rest… [Mansi X, 893]

Stephen had been instructed by Sophronius:

Traverse swiftly, therefore, from one end of the world to the other, until you come to the Apostolic See, where are the foundations of the holy doctrines... Cease not to pray and beg them until their apostolic and divine wisdom shall have pronounced the victorious judgment and destroyed the new heresy from its foundation. [Mansi X, 895]

Greek and Armenian monks led by John, abbot of St. Sabas, followed Stephen describing the council as meeting:

... by command of the one divinely presiding over you, priest of priests and father of fathers pre-eminent over all, our lord Martin, the thrice blessed pope... The hearts of all look to you, after God, knowing that you have been established by Christ our God as leader and head of the churches. [Mansi X, 903-8]

After the council Pope Martin appointed John, bishop of Philadelphia, as a special vicar in the east with wide authority. Martin told John to:

...correct the things which are wanting, and appoint bishops, priests and deacons in every city of those which are subject to the see of both Jerusalem and of Antioch, with us charging you to do this in every way, by virtue of the apostolic authority which was given to us by the Lord in the person of the most holy Peter, prince of the apostles, on account of the necessities of our time, and the pressure of the nations. [Mansi X, 806 sq.]

Maximus the Confessor regarded the Lateran Council as the sixth ecumenical. He wrote Rome saying:

... as they were explained piously and in all purity by the six holy councils [the five ecumenical councils, plus the Lateran Council], which were inspired and dictated by God in proclaiming very clearly the Symbol of Faith. For ever since the Word of God condescended to us and became man, all the Churches of Christians everywhere have held, and hold the great Church there as their sole basis and foundation, because, according to the very promises of the Lord, the gates of hell have never prevailed over her... [PG 91: 137-40]

Maximus was arrested and put on trial for treason. When asked why he did not communicate with the Church of Constantinople he said:

They are condemned by their own action, and... by the Romans... and by the [Lateran] Council. [PG 90: 120]

All primary source quotes have come from the soon to be published book Keys Over The Christian World Copyright 2001, written by Scott Butler and John Collorafi.