Minggu, 17 Juli 2011

Info Post
St. Peter
Adalah fakta bahwa St. Petrus membangun suksesi apostolik di tiga tahta sekaligus yaitu Roma, Alexandria, dan Antiokia. Antiokia mengklaim suksesi apostolik dari St. Petrus, tetapi hanya Roma yang dapat mengklaim suksesi aktual dari St. Petrus. Suksesi Apostolik adalah prinsip teologis yang menentukan darimana datangnya kekuasaan  apostolik suatu Gereja partikular tertentu. Tetapi suksesi apostolik tidak membangun atau menentukan suksesor aktual suatu tahta apostolik. Jadi, sekalipun suatu Tahta Apostolik mengklaim memiliki suksesi apostolik dari seorang Rasul tertentu, hal itu tidak berarti bahwa Tahta tersebut adalah suksesor aktual dari Rasul tersebut. Misalnya, Konstantinopel dan Moskow mengklaim suksesi apostolik dari St. Andreas, tetapi hanya Konstantinopel yang dapat mengklaim suksesor aktual dari St. Andreas.

St. Petrus sungguh berada di Antiokia dan dia menunjuk St. Evodius sebagai Uskup di Antiokia untuk menggembalakan Tahta tersebut.  Jadi, St. Petrus memang membangun Suksesi Apostolik di Antiokia, tetapi St. Petrus tidak membangun suksesor aktualnya di Antiokia. Di samping itu, seorang uskup tidak dapat memiliki suksesor selama dia masih hidup dan St. Petrus menyerahkan Antiokia kepada St. Evodius kala St. Petrus masih hidup sehingga tidak dapat kita terima pernyataan bahwa Uskup-uskup Antiokia adalah suksesor aktual St. Petrus. Sedangkan St. Linus menjadi suksesor aktual St. Petrus di Roma setelah St. Petrus wafat sebagai martir. 

Bukti paling jelas bahwa Antiokia bukanlah suksesor aktual St. Petrus adalah urutan tahta-tahta Apostolik pada abad-abad pertama Gereja yaitu yang pertama Roma, kemudian Alexandria dan kemudian Antiokia. Jikalau Antiokia memang merupakan suksesor aktual St. Petrus, tentunya Antiokia berada di urutan pertama atau setidaknya urutan kedua. Fakta ini menunjukkan bahwa kala itu Antiokia tidak mengklaim Primasi St. Petrus dan suksesor aktual St. Petrus. Fakta itu juga dapat menunjukkan bahwa Gereja Perdana tidak mengenal atau mengetahui klaim tersebut dari pihak Antiokia.

Dengan menjadi suksesor aktual St. Petrus, Roma memiliki keutamaan yang lebih daripada tahta-tahta lain. Hal ini sendiri telah diungkapkan oleh beberapa Bapa Gereja. 
"The first see, therefore, is that of Peter the apostle, that of the Roman Church, which has neither stain nor blemish nor anything like it. The second see, however, is that at Alexandria, consecrated in behalf of blessed Peter by Mark, his disciple and an evangelist, who was sent to Egypt by the apostle Peter, where he preached the word of truth and finished his glorious martyrdom. The third honorable see, indeed, is that at Antioch, which belonged to the most blessed apostle Peter, where first he dwelt before he came to Rome and where the name Christians was first applied, as to a new people" (Decree of Pope St. Damasus 3 [A.D. 382]).
"With a false bishop appointed for themselves by heretics,they dare even to set sail and carry letters from schismatics and blasphemers to the chair of Peter and to the principal Church [at Rome], in which sacerdotal unity has its source; nor did they take thought that these are Romans, whose faith was praised by the preaching Apostle, and among whom it is not possible for perfidy to have entrance." (Cyprian, Letter 59 (55), 14 to Cornelius of Rome, c. AD 252)
"You cannot deny that you are aware that in the city of Rome the episcopal chair was given first to Peter; the chair in which Peter sat, the same who was head—that is why he is also called Cephas [‘Rock’]—of all the apostles; the one chair in which unity is maintained by all" (St. Optatus dari Milevis, The Schism of the Donatists 2:2 [A.D. 367]).  
Transverse quickly all the world from one end to the other until you come to the Apostolic See (Rome), where are the foundations of the orthodox doctrine. Make clearly known to the most holy personages of that throne the questions agitated among us. Cease not to pray and to beg them until their apostolic and Divine wisdom shall have pronounced the victorious judgement and destroyed from the foundation ...the new heresy. (Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem, [quoted by Bishop Stephen of Dora to Pope Martin I at the Lateran Council], Mansi, 893)
That great man, the disciple of disciples, that master among masters, who wielding the government of the Roman Church possessed the principle authority in faith and in priesthood. Tell us, therefore, we beg of you, Peter, prince of Apostles, tell us how the Churches must believe in God (Cassian of Constantinople, Contra Nestorium, III, 12, CSEL, vol. 17, p. 276).
The extremities of the earth, and everyone in every part of itwho purely and rightly confess the Lord, look directly towards the Most Holy Roman Church and her confession and faith, as to a sun of unfailing light awaiting from her the brilliant radiance of the sacred dogmas of our Fathers, according to that which the inspired and holy Councils have stainlessly and piously decreed. For, from the descent of the Incarnate Word amongst us, all the churches in every part of the world have held the greatest Church alone to be their base and foundation, seeing that, according to the promise of Christ Our Savior, the gates of hell will never prevail against her, that she has the keys of the orthodox confession and right faith in Him,that she opens the true and exclusive religion to such men as approach with piety, and she shuts up and locks every heretical mouth which speaks against the Most High. (St. Maximus the Confessor of Constantinople, Opuscula theologica et polemica, Migne, Patr. Graec. vol. 90)
How much more in the case of the clergy and Church of the Romans, which from old until now presides over all the churches which are under the sun? Having surely received this canonically, as well as from councils and the apostles, as from the princes of the latter (Peter and Paul), and being numbered in their company, she is subject to no writings or issues in synodical documents, on account of the eminence of her pontificate .....even as in all these things all are equally subject to her (the Church of Rome) according to sacerodotal law. And so when, without fear, but with all holy and becoming confidence, those ministers (the popes) are of the truly firm and immovable rock, that is of the most great and Apostolic Church of Rome. (St. Maximus the Confessor of Constantinople, in J.B. Mansi, ed. Amplissima Collectio Conciliorum, vol. 10) 

If the Roman See recognizes Pyrrhus to be not only a reprobate but a heretic, it is certainly plain that everyone who anathematizes those who have rejected Pyrrhus also anathematizes the See of Rome, that is, he anathematizes the Catholic Church. I need hardly add that he excommunicates himself also, if indeed he is in communion with the Roman See and the Catholic Church of God ...Let him hasten before all things to satisfy the Roman See, for if it is satisfied, all will agree in calling him pious and orthodox. For he only speaks in vain who thinks he ought to pursuade or entrap persons like myself, and does not satisfy and implore the blessed Pope of the most holy Catholic Church of the Romans, that is, the Apostolic See, which is from the incarnate of the Son of God Himself, and also all the holy synods, according to the holy canons and definitions has received universal and surpreme dominion, authority, and power of binding and loosing over all the holy churches of God throughout the whole world. (St. Maximus the Confessor of Constantinople, Letter to Peter, in Mansi x, 692). 

The Pope of Rome, the head of the Christian priesthood, whom in Peter,. the Lord commanded to confirm his brethren. (Patriarch John VI of Constantinople, Epist. ad Constantin. Pap. ad. Combefis, Auctuar. Bibl. P.P. Graec.tom. ii. p. 211, seq.) 

dan masih banyak lagi pengajaran dari Para Bapa Gereja mengenai Keutamaan Roma dibanding tahta-tahta Apostolik lainnya. Silahkan baca link ini dan ini.

Pax et Bonum